Diabetes (la. Diabetes mellitus) is a chronic, incurable systemic metabolic disorder, characterized by sustained elevated levels of glucose in the blood.
Mostly it is caused by hereditary factors, and is due to reduced secretion or reduced biological effects of the hormone insulin or the combination of these two factors. This deficiency interferes with carbohydrate, fat and protein in the body (which manifested typical problems), and after a long time affects the structure and function of blood vessels, nerves and other vital organs and organ systems.
What causes diabetes?
Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) occurs as a consequence of exploitation of sugar (glucose) or carbohydrates in the body, is in the background and processing of fats and proteins.
The consequence of these disorders is damage to the structure and function of blood vessels, which is directly reflected on the work of important organs (heart, kidneys, nervous system, eyes, etc.).
The main reason for the occurrence of the disease is consent or insufficient secretion of insulin, a hormone that is produced in the pancreas gland (pancreas).
Our body is made up of millions of cells, which is necessary energy in a very simple form. This energy is nothing more than sugar (carbohydrates) from the food we eat. When you eat or drink, most entered foods are broken down into a simple sugar – glucose. Glucose is transmitted through the bloodstream from the liver to the cells that will be used (muscles, brain, etc.) Or stored (in the liver), or converted into fat (also in the liver). When glucose reaches a certain level, the pancreas secretes insulin. Insulin transfers glucose to certain cells. The more glucose enters the cell, the lower the concentration of glucose in the blood. Without insulin, glucose can not be transferred, which causes an increase in her blood. Too much glucose in the blood is called “blood sugar”. By definition, diabetes call state when the blood sugar levels are higher than 7.0 mmol (126 mg / dL).
Type 1 diabetes mellitus
Type 1 diabetes is the most severe form of diabetes and occurs when cells in the pancreas (beta cells) produce a very small amount of insulin or does not produce at all. Although type 1 diabetes occurs in all age groups, the most frequently is encountered in children and young people. Terapie with insulin is applied from the first day, and the treatment required strict control of blood sugar levels, diet and physical activity.
Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is the most common form, both in USA and in the world. The pancreas of people with type 2 produces insufficient insulin or the body created resistance (immunity) to this hormone. It occurs most often in adults (older than 40) and obese patients. The modern way of life is very good for the development of this type of diabetes. Terapie is combined – diet and oral antidiabetic drugs (tablets), with moderate and regular physical activity. If the treatment of diabetes does not work, terapie with insulin is used with the option to include oral anti-diabetic.
This form of diabetes causing changes in the hormonal balance of women that can lead to disturbances in the secretion of insulin and, consequently, increased levels of glucose in the blood. Higher risk are exposed to pregnant women who are older than 25 years, if they were overweight before pregnancy, especially those that have a genetic predisposition to develop their diabetes mellitus (DM). Usually, the glucose levels stabilize after birth, however, women who have diabetes during pregnancy later become more susceptible to diabetes type 2 diabetes.
The first symptoms are increased urination and increased thirst, urine odor on the breath acetone and acetone. Then the blood glucose is higher than 10 (11) mmol / L. Increased urination is lost too much water. The body dehydrated and falling into a coma hiperlikemičku, which is life-threatening condition.
When blood glucose decreased 6-10 mmol / L, these symptoms does not entering the hyperglycemic coma. The disease goes unrecognized, and high blood sugar over time irreversibly damage the nerves and blood vessels and can lead to: hypertension, heart attack, stroke, blindness, gangrene of the feet, severe renal impairment, increases resistance to infection and decreased pain, and diabetics often do not feel pain during a heart attack and do not consult a doctor, but a doctor in the first hours after a heart attack is the most important. The level of glucose in the blood varies, and with it the symptoms.
How to deal with the problem
The best way to prevent and mitigate the progression of the disease is moderate, healthy lifestyle – proper diet (prescribed by the dietician or endocrinologist, a dietician-nutritionist devised), proper physical activity (prescribed by the doctor and physiotherapist devised), adherence, regular medical and scheduled checks with doctor. Proper diet should be such as to maintain optimal body weight and secure all the necessary nutrients in optimal amounts, with reduced intake of simple carbohydrates (sweets, white sugar) and increased intake of fiber (oat, wheat flakes). It is necessary to regularly control: blood glucose and urine glucose and acetone. If necessary, making glucose tolerance test, if it is suspected for hidden diabetes. It is necessary to check the blood: triglycerides, total cholesterol and its fractions (good and bad cholesterol HDL cholesterol LDL), and HDL / LDL ratio, which represents a factor for myocardial physics, because diabetes often occurs in the metabolic syndrome X.